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1.0 Introduction

2.0 Pollution-The Biggest Environmental Concern today

3.0 Overpopulation

4.0 Impact of Overpopulation on Environment

5.0 Impact of Overpopulation on Economy

6.0 Steps to Control Population in India

7.0 Conclusion

8.0 References



Pollution and overpopulation are considered as one of the main issues in India as they hinder the growth and development of the country and suitable measures are not been taken by the government. India is the second-largest country in the world after China in terms of population. In 1945, India’s graph in terms of population was latent but then it augmented significantly. Overpopulation has always been an issue as it causes other problems like pollution, poverty, unemployment, lack of hygiene due to overcrowdedness and extensive use of natural resources leading to its depletion. Issues like global warming, extinction of many plants and animals and insufficient rainfall are also the consequences of overpopulation. India’s pollution has been grabbing attention all over the world. India’s capital ‘Delhi’ is the most polluted city in the country causing air and water pollution. As urbanization is increasing in India, people who are actually suffering are poor people.



Pollution is a serious issue which is one of the main causes of global warming. The whole world today is facing the problem of global warming and is bearing its consequence which not only affects the present generation but will also affect the future generation to a great extent. There are various types of pollution which can be categorized as:

  • Air pollution- Chemicals polluting the air cause air pollution. It has a great effect on the climate and also the health of the people. It causes an imbalance in nature. It is the biggest threat currently in India affecting the lives of people. Due to overpopulation, there are a lot of vehicles on the roads which results in immense traffic; that also causes pollution. Smoke emitted from factories also causes great damage to the environment.

  • Water pollution- Lots of industries emitting harmful gases and discarding plastics and other waste materials in water causes water pollution. This has become quite hazardous especially in the urban areas; resulting in disparity in marine wildlife. People do not maintain hygiene standards and so it is very difficult to find pure drinking water. People who consume such unhealthy water become the victim of several health problems and diseases.

  • Noise pollution- This can be found mostly in urban areas due to the noise coming from vehicles and other human hustle and bustle. This definitely affects health; causing deafness not only in adults but also among children.

  • Land Pollution-Humans utilize waste materials such as chemicals, harmful pesticides, and fertilizers that eventually cause land pollution.



There are many causes of overpopulation like high birth rate, low death rate, better medical facilities, rise in the number of immigrants, agricultural and industrial revolution and lack of family planning facilities, especially in rural areas. India has all these factors which result in overpopulation thereby causing other problems like exhaustion of natural resources, climate change, unemployment and many others. One of the key setbacks is excessive pollution.



Global Warming is one of the effects of overpopulation. Countries like India and China are overpopulated and according to the estimation, India will overtake China by the year 2024 in terms of population. India is facing a lot of challenges in sustainability due to overpopulation and pollution as they are interrelated.

One of the main reasons of ecological imbalance is the depletion of various minerals and other natural resources by human activity. Deforestation has caused enormous pollution and has also affected the health of humans. Reduction in oxygen is the result of the cutting of forests.



Unemployment also takes place due to overpopulation. Unemployed people are large in number in India due to overcrowdedness especially in urban cities. As land, water and other resources are overpopulated, they cause a lack of resources. Issues like poverty arise as there is an unequal distribution of resources due to large number of people. Demand is more compared to the supply as the production could not be balanced with the increasing population.



The government of India should take proper measures by providing guidance to people on family planning measures and also introduce sex education in schools. Public awareness should be made as this is a grave issue that needs action immediately.



Overpopulation is one of the main causes of pollution in India which is definitely hindering the sustainability factor in India. Over the last few years, these problems have risen and the government has failed in taking appropriate steps. The recent Covid-19 pandemic has only gotten worse in India due to overpopulation. Huge population in India stays in slum areas where it is difficult to contain the deadly infection.

Climate change and depletion of resources are the challenges India is facing for a long time. Other than the environmental factors, economic factors should also be taken into account as it is causing severe concern. Poverty and illiteracy are the main factors in India resulting in stress and anxiety among humans. This further can cause a lot of health problems like diabetes, insomnia, heart stroke etc. It has been almost 73 years since India got independence from the British, but still, it failed to achieve the desired result.

Indian government needs to tackle problems like hygiene, quality of air, scarcity of water etc. Practices followed during certain festivals that cause air and noise pollution should be banned.   Greenery should be preserved and legal action should be taken against those who cause destruction to the environment.

Along with the government, citizens too should contribute towards sustainability and spread awareness. People need to understand that pollution and population are not only a national problem but a global concern today.



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